Tackling the Labor Shortage in Maine and Its Impact on Key Industries

Impact of labor shortage on key industries in Maine, EB-3 Visa green card jobs, Solutions for Maine labor shortage and industry impact

Maine has been grappling with a persistent and growing labor shortage affecting businesses, industries, and communities across the state.

There are currently 41,000 job openings and 17,148 unemployed workers in Maine, resulting in a ratio of 42 available workers for every 100 open jobs. 

The labor force participation rate is 58.6%, with an unemployment rate of 2.5%. Additionally, there is a 1.7% quit rate and a 3.6% hiring rate.

This phenomenon, characterized by a mismatch between the demand for labor and the available workforce, has emerged as a significant challenge with far-reaching implications for the economy, society, and overall well-being of the state.

The causes of this labor shortage are multifaceted and complex, stemming from demographic trends, economic factors, and structural challenges within the labor market.

Maine, known for its picturesque landscapes, vibrant communities, and strong work ethic, has long relied on industries such as agriculture, tourism, forestry, and healthcare to drive its economy and provide employment opportunities for its residents.

The state has been experiencing a demographic shift characterized by an aging population, declining birth rates, and outmigration of young people seeking better opportunities elsewhere.

These demographic trends have contributed to a shrinking workforce and a tightening labor market, making it increasingly difficult for businesses to find and retain qualified workers.

The impact of the labor shortage in Maine is being felt across a wide range of industries and sectors.

In rural areas, where agriculture and forestry are major economic drivers, farmers and logging companies need help finding enough workers to harvest crops, tend to livestock, or operate machinery.

In the healthcare sector, hospitals and nursing homes face staffing shortages that affect patient care quality. Impact of labor shortage on key industries in Maine, EB-3 Visa green card jobs, Solutions for Maine labor shortage and industry impact

In the hospitality industry, restaurants, hotels, and tourist attractions are finding it challenging to hire enough seasonal workers to meet the demands of visitors during the peak tourism season.

The labor shortage is a problem for businesses and industries and has broader implications for the state’s overall well-being.

Unable workers can hinder economic growth, limit job creation, and stifle innovation and productivity.

This challenge can lead to increased costs for businesses, as they may need to offer higher wages, benefits, and incentives to attract and retain workers in a competitive labor market.

The labor shortage can exacerbate income inequality, as specific industries and regions may struggle more than others to find workers, leading to disparities in economic opportunities and outcomes.

Maine has much to offer in terms of quality of life, natural beauty, and community spirit, and efforts to promote the state as a desirable place to live and work can help attract new residents and workers to fill critical gaps in the labor market.

Initiatives such as relocation incentives and targeted recruitment efforts can help attract new talent and inject fresh energy and ideas into the state’s workforce.

Five strategies that can help mitigate the labor shortage in Maine:

1. Hire workers from overseas

The EB-3 visa offers a practical solution to Maine’s shortage of unskilled workers.

Maine can tap into a global labor pool to address its growing need for unskilled workers across various sectors, including agriculture, manufacturing, healthcare, and hospitality.

Employers in Maine can source workers worldwide, ensuring that even the most labor-intensive and entry-level positions are filled, which is particularly important for industries facing ongoing labor shortages.

Maine relies on agriculture, hospitality, and healthcare industries, often requiring unskilled or low-skilled workers to perform essential tasks.

Due to the outmigration of young workers and other factors, businesses in these industries may need help finding enough domestic workers to fill these positions.

The EB-3 visa program provides a mechanism for employers in Maine to recruit unskilled workers from overseas to fill critical labor gaps and ensure the smooth operation of their businesses.

Creating a supportive environment for immigrants through community programs, language training, and cultural integration initiatives can assist newcomers in settling and thriving in their new communities.

Hiring unskilled workers from overseas through the EB-3 visa program can bring diversity and new perspectives to the workforce in Maine.

This diversity can contribute to a more inclusive and vibrant labor market in Maine, fostering a sense of community and collaboration among workers from different backgrounds and experiences.

By welcoming foreign workers into their teams, businesses can benefit from a rich cultural exchange, increased innovation, and enhanced global connections.

This stability can be particularly advantageous for employers who invest in workforce training.

Many industries in Maine experience fluctuating labor demands due to seasonal variations.

The EB-3 visa program can ensure a steady supply of workers to meet these cyclical needs, helping businesses maintain smooth operations.

2. Invest in Workforce Development Programs

Investing in workforce development programs is crucial to address the skills gap and prepare workers for high-demand industries in Maine.

By collaborating with educational institutions, businesses, and industry associations, the state can design training programs that equip individuals with the skills, certifications, and credentials needed to succeed in the current job market.

These programs can focus on emerging industries, such as healthcare, technology, and renewable energy, with a high demand for skilled workers.

Providing support for apprenticeship programs, on-the-job training, and career counseling can help individuals transition into new fields and fill critical gaps in the labor market.

Business owners across Maine need help finding skilled workers to fill job vacancies.

The government passed a law allocating $10,411,000 for Maine’s workforce development programs in 2024. Impact of labor shortage on key industries in Maine, EB-3 Visa green card jobs, Solutions for Maine labor shortage and industry impact

3. Enhance Recruitment and Retention Efforts

Improving recruitment and retention efforts is essential to attract and retain talent in Maine. Businesses can enhance their recruitment strategies by offering competitive wages, benefits, and workplace perks to attract skilled workers.

Creating a positive work culture, providing opportunities for professional development, and offering flexible work arrangements can also help retain employees and reduce turnover rates.

Targeted marketing campaigns, relocation incentives, and community engagement initiatives can attract new residents and workers by promoting Maine as a desirable place to live and work.

In 2024, according to the Forbes Health/OnePoll survey, some resolutions are more prevalent than others. Impact of labor shortage on key industries in Maine, EB-3 Visa green card jobs, Solutions for Maine labor shortage and industry impact

The most common goals include improving fitness (48%), enhancing finances (38%), improving mental health (36%), losing weight (34%), and improving diet (32%).

Maine companies prioritize employee well-being by allowing them to care for themselves during work hours. Impact of labor shortage on key industries in Maine, EB-3 Visa green card jobs, Solutions for Maine labor shortage and industry impact

Collaborating with local chambers of commerce, economic development agencies, and workforce organizations can amplify recruitment efforts and showcase the opportunities available in Maine.

4. Expand Access to Affordable Housing

Addressing the shortage of affordable housing in Maine is crucial to attracting and retaining workers, especially in high-demand industries and regions.

The current average selling price has risen 5.8% year-over-year, reaching $498,174, up from $471,085 in May 2023.

Single-family homes and condos have experienced price increases, while multi-family homes have seen a decrease in prices.

By partnering with developers, non-profit organizations, and local governments, the state can invest in affordable housing projects that cater to the needs of low- and moderate-income individuals and families. Impact of labor shortage on key industries in Maine, EB-3 Visa green card jobs, Solutions for Maine labor shortage and industry impact

Implementing zoning reforms, providing incentives for affordable housing development, and supporting initiatives to preserve existing housing stock can help alleviate housing affordability challenges and make Maine a more attractive place to live and work.

Promoting mixed-use developments, transit-oriented housing, and sustainable urban planning can create vibrant communities that are accessible and livable for workers of all income levels.

5. Foster Collaboration and Partnerships

Fostering collaboration and partnerships among stakeholders is essential to effectively addressing the labor shortage in Maine.

By bringing together employers, government agencies, educational institutions, non-profit organizations, and community leaders, the state can leverage collective expertise, resources, and networks to develop innovative solutions and initiatives.

Establishing industry partnerships, workforce development councils, and advisory boards can facilitate stakeholder communication, coordination, and knowledge-sharing.

Investing in public-private partnerships, collaborative initiatives, and cross-sector collaborations can create synergies and amplify the impact of efforts to address the labor shortage.

Through 2023 and 2024, the Maine legislature passed seven bills to improve Mainers’ rights at work.

These bills, however, will not become law unless the Appropriations and Financial Affairs Committee (AFA) allocates the funding needed to enforce the new protections.

AFA is advocating for the passage of two bills in Maine that would significantly benefit workers.

LD 513 aims to increase the threshold for salaried workers eligible for overtime pay, potentially making an additional 19,000 workers eligible for overtime protections, with an estimated ongoing cost of $2.8 million annually.

LD 1376 seeks to raise the minimum wage to $15 per hour, which could result in a collective raise of $97 million per year for approximately 115,000 Maine workers.

This increase would particularly impact around 25,000 workers in the direct care sector. The expected cost of this bill is just under $8 million in fiscal year 2024/5.

By working together towards a common goal, stakeholders can identify shared challenges, implement coordinated strategies, and drive meaningful change that benefits Maine workers, businesses, and communities.

Industries Mostly Affected

1. Agriculture and Farming

Maine’s agriculture and farming industry plays a crucial role in the state’s economy, contributing to food production, rural livelihoods, and environmental sustainability.

Maine’s fertile soil and extensive 5,300-mile coastline contribute to the state’s diverse agricultural output, including blueberries, dairy, seafood, and eggs.

The most recent Census of Agriculture by the US Department of Agriculture indicates that there are 7,036 farms in Maine, with agricultural product sales amounting to over $870 million.

This sector has been grappling with a severe labor shortage, particularly in finding enough seasonal and year-round workers to plant, cultivate, harvest, and process crops.

Maine’s agriculture industry relies heavily on domestic and foreign seasonal workers to perform labor-intensive tasks such as planting, weeding, harvesting, and packing crops.

With a declining local workforce willing to take on these physically demanding and often low-paying jobs, farmers and growers need help finding enough workers to meet production demands.

The labor shortage in the agriculture sector has led to challenges such as crop losses, reduced productivity, increased labor costs, and delayed harvesting schedules.

Farmers are often forced to leave crops unharvested in the fields, resulting in financial losses and food waste. Impact of labor shortage on key industries in Maine, EB-3 Visa green card jobs, Solutions for Maine labor shortage and industry impact

The inability to find enough workers can hinder the growth and competitiveness of Maine’s agricultural businesses, limiting their ability to meet market demands and expand their operations.

2. Hospitality and Tourism

Maine’s hospitality and tourism industry is a significant driver of the state’s economy, attracting visitors worldwide to explore its scenic coastlines, national parks, and charming towns.

The industry has been facing a labor shortage, particularly during the peak tourism season, when businesses such as hotels, restaurants, tour operators, and attractions experience a surge in worker demand. Impact of labor shortage on key industries in Maine, EB-3 Visa green card jobs, Solutions for Maine labor shortage and industry impact

The number of individuals employed in the Accommodation and Food Services industry in Maine was 59,005,000 in April 2024, as reported by the United States Federal Reserve.

Previously, the peak employment level in this industry in Maine was recorded at 61.20000 in June of 2019, while the lowest level was reached in April of 2020, amounting to 29.30000.

The labor shortage in the hospitality and tourism sector is exacerbated by factors such as a seasonal workforce, high turnover rates, and challenges in recruiting and retaining qualified staff.

Businesses need help finding enough workers to fill positions such as housekeeping, front desk staff, chefs, servers, and tour guides, which can lead to understaffing, reduced service quality, and operational inefficiencies.

The impact of the labor shortage in the hospitality industry is felt by businesses and visitors who may experience longer wait times, limited service options, and reduced customer satisfaction.

3. Healthcare

The healthcare sector in Maine, which includes hospitals, nursing homes, clinics, and home healthcare agencies, is facing a growing labor shortage that impacts the delivery of healthcare services and the quality of patient care.

There was an increase of 9,300 jobs from a year ago, averaging 800 monthly jobs.

More than half of the year-over-year growth was in healthcare and social assistance, as this sector had a slower recovery in the first two years following the pandemic’s start.

Healthcare and social assistance (17 percent), retail trade (13 percent), professional and business services (12 percent), and leisure and hospitality (11 percent) collectively accounted for just over half of the state’s jobs.

The shortage of healthcare workers, particularly in roles such as registered nurses, certified nursing assistants, and healthcare aides, has been a longstanding issue in Maine, exacerbated by factors such as an aging population, increased demand for healthcare services, and challenges in recruiting and retaining qualified staff.

The healthcare workforce shortage in Maine has led to various challenges for healthcare providers, including understaffing, increased workloads on existing staff, decreased patient satisfaction, and potential compromises in patient safety and quality of care.

In rural areas of the state, where access to healthcare services is already limited, the shortage of healthcare workers can exacerbate disparities in healthcare outcomes and hinder efforts to improve population health.

By leveraging technology and innovation, healthcare organizations in Maine can optimize resource allocation, improve efficiency, and deliver patient care more timely and cost-effectively.

Collaborative efforts between healthcare providers, educational institutions, government agencies, and community organizations are essential to address the complex challenges of the healthcare workforce shortage in Maine and ensure the delivery of high-quality, accessible healthcare services to all residents.

Impact of labor shortage on key industries in Maine, EB-3 Visa green card jobs, Solutions for Maine labor shortage and industry impact

The Takeaway

Investing in workforce development and training programs tailored to meet the needs of high-demand industries is essential for bridging the skills gap contributing to the labor shortage.

Acknowledging the demographic shifts, economic factors, and structural challenges within the labor market, can help Maine to begin implementation of targeted strategies aimed at revitalizing its workforce.

By aligning educational initiatives with the requirements of employers, Maine can equip its workforce with the skills and knowledge necessary to excel in the jobs of the future, thereby bolstering the state’s overall economic resilience.

Attracting and retaining talent from overseas presents an opportunity to supplement the local workforce.

Efforts to promote Maine as an attractive destination for living and working, coupled with targeted recruitment and relocation incentives, can help address critical gaps in the labor market and inject fresh energy, ideas, and expertise into the state’s workforce.

Considering practical solutions such as the EB-3 visa program to source unskilled workers from overseas can provide much-needed support to industries such as agriculture, manufacturing, healthcare, and hospitality that are facing ongoing labor shortages.

Creating a supportive environment for immigrants through community programs, language training, and cultural integration initiatives can further strengthen Maine’s ability to attract and retain a diverse and skilled labor force.

Ultimately, addressing the labor shortage in Maine requires a collaborative effort from policymakers, businesses, educational institutions, and communities.

By adopting innovative solutions and fostering a supportive environment for economic growth and prosperity, Maine can work towards mitigating the challenges posed by the current labor shortage, paving the way for a more robust and inclusive economy for the benefit of all its residents.


 Lindsay Cates and Stephanie Ferguson. “Understanding America’s Labor Shortage: The Most Impacted States”.https://www.uschamber.com/workforce/the-states-suffering-most-from-the-labor-shortage?state=me

2 EB-3 Work.https://eb3.work/

3 USCIS. “Employment-Based Immigration: Third Preference EB-3”.https://www.uscis.gov/working-in-the-united-states/permanent-workers/employment-based-immigration-third-preference-eb-3

4 Susan Collins. “More Than $10 Million for Maine Workforce Development Programs Secured by Senator Collins”. https://www.collins.senate.gov/newsroom/more-than-10-million-for-maine-workforce-development-programs-secured-by-senator-collins

5 News Center Maine. “Maine employers prioritizing mental, physical health at work in 2024”. https://www.newscentermaine.com/article/news/health/mental-health/lets-talk-about-it/maine-employers-prioritizing-mental-physical-health-in-2024-resolution-new-year-fitness-wellbeing-exercise/

6 Christine Miranda. LAMACCHIA Realty. “May 2024 Maine Housing Report”. https://www.lamacchiarealty.com/may-2024-maine-housing-report/

7 James Myall. Maine Center for Economic Policy. “Maine lawmakers have signed off on worker protections — now they must fund their implementation”. https://www.mecep.org/blog/maine-lawmakers-have-signed-off-on-worker-protections-now-they-must-fund-their-implementation/

8 Farm Flavor. “Top Maine Agriculture Facts From the 2024 Census of Agriculture”. https://farmflavor.com/maine/maine-crops-livestock/top-maine-agriculture-facts/

9 Trading Economics. https://tradingeconomics.com/united-states/all-employees-accommodation-and-food-services-in-maine-fed-data.html

10 State of Maine: Department of Labor. “The Employment Situation in Maine – May 2024”. https://www.maine.gov/labor/news_events/article.shtml?id=12836869

Impact of labor shortage on key industries in Maine, EB-3 Visa green card jobs, Solutions for Maine labor shortage and industry impact