The 2024 Labor Shortage in Virginia and 5 Solutions

2024 labor shortage in Virginia and proposed solutions, EB-3 Visa green card jobs for migrant workers, solutions for labor shortage in virginia

Virginia is at the epicenter of a significant labor shortage and it’s reshaping its economic landscape

This phenomenon is not unique to Virginia but is part of a broader national trend that has been exacerbated by a combination of demographic shifts, evolving industry demands, and the lingering effects of the pandemic.

There are 47 available workers for every 100 open jobs, resulting in a Worker Shortage Index of 0.47.

With 243,000 job openings and 113,102 unemployed workers, the state has a labor force participation rate of 66.7% and an unemployment rate of 2.5%.

The quit rate is 2.6%, and the hiring rate is 4.3%. The top employer industry in Virginia is Professional and Business Services.[1]

A confluence of both macroeconomic and microeconomic factors influences Virginia’s labor shortage.

The aging population and declining birth rates have reduced the working-age population.

The Baby Boomer generation, which constitutes a substantial portion of the workforce, is retiring in large numbers, creating a vacuum that younger generations need to fill at a proportional rate.

This demographic shift is particularly pronounced in Virginia, where the median age is steadily increasing, and the proportion of retirees is growing.

The state’s economic structure has evolved, with significant technological, healthcare, and logistics growth.

The public health crisis led to unprecedented disruptions, causing many workers to reevaluate their career paths and work-life balance.

The subsequent “Great Resignation,” where millions of Americans left their jobs in search of better opportunities or opted for early retirement, has left many employers scrambling to fill vacancies.

In Virginia, this trend has been particularly evident in hospitality, retail, and healthcare industries, where the demand for workers has surged, but the supply has dwindled.

The inability to recruit and retain employees translates into operational challenges and lost opportunities for growth.

Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs), which form the backbone of Virginia’s economy, are especially vulnerable.

They often lack the resources to compete with larger corporations offering higher wages and better benefits.

This competitive pressure pushes wages upward, contributing to inflationary pressures and squeezing profit margins.

There is a growing recognition that the education system must adapt to better prepare students for the evolving job market.

This includes not only enhancing STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics) education but also expanding vocational training and apprenticeship programs that can provide students with practical, job-ready skills.

The labor shortage in Virginia is shaping up to be one of the decade’s most pressing economic challenges.

As businesses across various sectors struggle to attract and retain workers, the repercussions are becoming increasingly evident.

From healthcare to technology, hospitality to manufacturing, the labor shortage profoundly impacts the state’s economy, affecting operational efficiency, growth prospects, and service quality.

Hospitals and clinics face significant challenges in maintaining adequate staffing levels, which affect patient care and lead to longer wait times for medical services.

The burnout rate among healthcare workers has surged, contributing to higher turnover rates.

Healthcare providers should invest in recruitment and retention strategies, such as offering sign-on bonuses, competitive salaries, and comprehensive benefits packages.

Virginia’s technology sector, particularly in Northern Virginia, is experiencing rapid growth, driven by the demand for cybersecurity, data analytics, and software development.

Tech companies should turn to upskilling and reskilling initiatives internally and through collaborations with local universities and coding boot camps.

Restaurants, hotels, and entertainment venues need help to fill positions, leading to reduced hours of operation, limited services, and, in some cases, temporary closures.

The shortage affects not only front-line staff but also management and specialized roles, such as chefs and event planners.

Virginia’s manufacturers need help recruiting skilled workers for machinists, welders, and assembly line operators positions. This shortage is leading to production delays and increased operational costs.

Apprenticeship programs and partnerships with technical schools should expand to develop a skilled workforce that meets the industry’s needs.

The retail sector is experiencing similar challenges, with many stores struggling to hire enough staff to meet customer demand.

The labor shortage leads to reduced store hours, longer checkout lines, and decreased overall customer service quality.

Seasonal peaks, such as the holiday shopping period, are particularly challenging.

The logistics and transportation sector needs more truck drivers, warehouse workers, and coordinators.

This leads to supply chain disruptions, increased shipping costs, and delays in goods delivery.

Potential Solutions to Address the Labor Shortage in Virginia

1. Hire foreign laborers

The EB-3 visa program is critical for addressing labor shortages, particularly in sectors requiring unskilled workers[2]

The EB-3 visa allows U.S. employers to sponsor foreign nationals for permanent residency if they can demonstrate that no qualified U.S. workers are available.

This program can particularly benefit Virginia’s healthcare, technology, and manufacturing sectors, all experiencing significant labor shortages.

Businesses can partner with immigration experts like EB3 Work to conduct consultation services.[3]

2. Investing in Workforce Development and Training Programs

These programs provide vocational training, apprenticeships, and educational resources to help Virginians gain the expertise needed to excel in growing industries such as healthcare, technology, and skilled trades.

With an aging population contributing to the labor shortage, attracting and retaining young talent is crucial for ensuring a sustainable workforce in Virginia.

Virginia’s public school enrollment was expected to decrease before the pandemic due to a declining birth rate.

The pandemic caused some students to leave the public school system for private schools or home schools, leading to a faster projected drop in public school enrollment.

It is anticipated that from the current school year of 2023-2024 to 2028-2029, Virginia’s public school enrollment will decrease by 2.9%, from 1,219,485 to 1,184,449 students.[4]

Strengthen partnerships between businesses and local community colleges, universities, and vocational schools to develop curriculum and training programs that align with industry needs.

Expand apprenticeship and internship opportunities, providing hands-on experience and a pathway to full-time employment. Incentives such as tax credits for employers who participate in these programs can boost engagement.

Launch initiatives focused on reskilling and upskilling the existing workforce, mainly targeting workers displaced by automation or economic shifts. This can include funding certification programs, online courses, and continuing education.

3. Enhancing Employee Retention and Work Environment

In February, approximate 92,000 employees resigned from their positions with Virginia-based companies.[5]

Improving employee retention through better work environments and benefits can mitigate the labor shortage by reducing turnover and making positions more attractive to job seekers.

Businesses must offer competitive wages, comprehensive benefits packages, and other incentives such as performance bonuses and retirement plans.

4. Employee Well-being Programs

Implement well-being programs that address physical and mental health, such as wellness programs, mental health support, and initiatives that promote work-life balance. Happy, healthy employees are more likely to stay with their employers long-term.

The number of individuals employed in the Education and Health Services sector in Virginia was 599.30000 thousand in March of 2024, as reported by the United States Federal Reserve.

The highest recorded employment in this sector in Virginia was also 599.30000 in March of 2024, while the lowest was 236.00000 in January of 1990.[6]

Flexible arrangements are beneficial, too, including flexible hours and job-sharing opportunities.

This can attract a broader talent pool, including parents, caregivers, and individuals with disabilities.

5. Affordable Housing and Living Incentives

Address the high cost of living by advocating for affordable housing initiatives and offering relocation incentives for young professionals and families.

This can include first-time homebuyer programs, rental assistance, and incentives for developers to build affordable housing.

In March 2024, the median home price in Virginia stood at $432,000, marking a 7% increase from the previous year, as reported by Redfin.[7]

The Bottom Line

Addressing the demographic shifts, evolving industry demands, and the lingering effects of the pandemic will be crucial in developing effective solutions to attract and retain a skilled workforce.

The EB-3 visa program is identified as a tool for addressing labor shortages, particularly in sectors requiring unskilled workers, by allowing U.S. employers to sponsor foreign nationals for permanent residency when qualified U.S. workers are not available.

Investing in Workforce Development and Training Programs is emphasized as crucial for providing vocational training, apprenticeships, and educational resources to help address labor shortages in growing industries such as healthcare, technology, and skilled trades.

Enhancing Employee Retention and Work Environment is identified as a key strategy to mitigate labor shortages by improving work environments, offering competitive wages, comprehensive benefits packages, and implementing employee well-being programs.

The importance of affordable housing and living incentives is emphasized, including advocating for affordable housing initiatives and offering relocation incentives for young professionals and families.

These initiatives aim to address the high cost of living and attract and retain talent in Virginia.

These efforts aim to ensure a sustainable and skilled workforce in Virginia, particularly in the face of demographic and economic shifts.


[1] Lindsay Cates and Stephanie Ferguson.US Chamber of Commerce. “Understanding America’s Labor Shortage: The Most Impacted States”.

2 USCIS. “Employment-Based Immigration: Third Preference EB-3”.

3 EB3 Work.

4 Dwayne Yancey. “Virginia school enrollment projected to drop faster than expected, with biggest declines in Northern Virginia”.

5 Virginia Employment Commission.

6 Trading Economics.

7 Peter Warden. “Virginia First-Time Home Buyer: 2024 Programs and Grants”.